Hindu religious literature, is of two types: Nigama and Agama . The Nigama scriptures are of divine origin, whose truths were directly revealed to ancient rishis (sages) in their deep meditations. The Agama scriptures are of Rishi origin and were written to explain the Nigama writings and make them understandable and meaningful to the general population. Nigama scriptures include the four Vedas and Upavedas. Agama scriptures include four distinct groups of writings:

  • Kavya, Nyaya, Mimansa etc
  • Puranas and Itihasas
  • Darshan Shastra
  • Smritis

In our eternal religion, the Vedas (Sacred texts) enjoys the unique position. They are considered as the ultimate means of knowledge. Vedas have emerged from the Brahman (impersonal personality) itself. Vedas existed since time immemorial as vibrations in space, some portions of which are believed to have been perceived by seers and transmitted accordingly via an oral tradition. The four Vedas Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda are divided into four sections:

  • The Samhitas - Contains the mantras and hymns
  • The Brahmanas - The ritualistic teachings
  • The Aranyakas - The meditational section
  • The Upanishads - The mystic and philosophical section, also known as Vedanta, or the end of the Vedas, implying the culmination of Vedic thought